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作者:亚慱体育app官方入口    发布时间:2022-06-07 23:28:01     浏览次数 :

本文摘要:日志20200922参考文献标注条目的三个部门The Three Parts of a Reference Entry参考文献标注体系有好几种;差别期刊出书社天天使用的版本也有大巨细小的区别。


日志20200922参考文献标注条目的三个部门The Three Parts of a Reference Entry参考文献标注体系有好几种;差别期刊出书社天天使用的版本也有大巨细小的区别。但用于定位文献的基本信息是相同的;可以分成有关作者信息、文献信息、出书公布信息等三个部门。通过选择、组合、排列这三个部门信息就获得差别的文献标注体系。

There are several kinds of referencing systems. Different journals and publishers also use versions with large or small variations in their daily work. Yet the basic information used to locate a reference is the same in those. An entry in a reference list can be divided into three parts: author, reference item and publication. By selecting, combining and arranging these three parts of information, people have created different referencing systems. 在哈佛文献标注体系中,作者信息包罗年份信息,如果再加上页码和章节号部门,就与文内引用基底细同。这也许是哈佛文献标注的优点之一。In Harvard referencing system, the information on author also contains information on the year of publication. When page or chapter numbers are added to them, it is basically the same as in-text referencing information. This might be an advantage in using the Harvard referencing system. 作者可以是一人或多人。

多人作者的排序很重要,因为涉及到引用情况,所以一般第一、第二、第三作者是必须列出来的。其他的作者不列出,用et. al.来省略。

There can be one author or several authors of a reference. The order of listing the authors is very important because it involves the name of an author being mentioned in others’ works. So the first, second and third authors must be listed clearly. Other authors will not be listed and “et. al.” is used for saving space. 作者可以是小我私家也可以是组织机构,包罗政府、国际组织、公司等等;作者还可以有差别的身份,可以是原创的作者,也可以是编者和译者。这两个身份需要标注出来,编者用ed.或者eds.划分是一个和多个编者;译者用trans.或者用translated by。An author can be a person or an organization, which may include government organs, international organizations and companies. An author can have different functions to a book. He or she can be the original author, an editor or a translator. The last two functions needs to be clearly stated. An editor’s name is followed by “ed.” and those of several editors by “eds.”. The name of a translator is followed by “trans. or translated by”.如果作者同一年内写了多个作品,可以用abcd…划分标注出来,好比,1998a。

如果使用所引文献中引用的其他作品的看法,应该使用被转引的其他作品标注文献,但同时应标明所引文献及其作者。If an author wrote several works in one year, each can be added with one letter in alphabetic order “a, b, c, d…”, such as 1998a. If the reference quotes the opinion of other works, the quoted other works should be referenced with the information on the original reference and its author. 文献信息的部门主要形貌所引用文本的种种属性。文献可以分为两大类:传统的纸质出书物和电子资料。The part of a reference entry about the referential material itself mainly describes various attributes of the text quoted. References fall into two major categories: traditional printed publications and electronic data. 书和期刊是最主要的学术文献。

书有单行本,文集和丛书,后两种都要明确标注出来,利便查找泉源。如果书有多个版本,需要注明是第几版,好比“2nd ed.”,重印的版本注明“Reprint”,修订版也作为新版本,但需要注明修订,好比“3rd rev. ed.”。Books and journals are the primary literature in academic study. Books may be published in single copies, collections and series. The names or titles of collections or series need to be clearly noted for readers to check information source easily. If a book has been published in several editions, the number of edition needs to be given, such as “2nd ed.”. “Reprint” needs to be added for reprinted editions. A revision is regarded as a new edition. But revision needs to be specified, such as “3rd rev. ed.”.引用书的看法可以归纳综合全部书或文章,也可以是其中一部门内容。

如果有明确的标题应该把引用的标题标注出来,同时后面要注明页码或者页码规模,章节号。When quoting opinions in a book or article, a writer can summarize the entire book or article or any part of it. If there is a specific title to the part, the title needs to be given in reference entry and page or chapter number(s) need to be added. 期刊文章的信息除了标题之外,还需要标注期刊名称,卷号和期号。


In addition to its title, the information on the article in a journal also needs to include the name of the journal, volume number and issue number. Volume number is counted by year from the beginning of the journal’s publication. The issues published in one year are collected as one volume. Issue number is the number given to each issue published in a year. In the referential information about an article in newspaper, its title is given first, then the date of publishing of the newspaper, and finally the number of the page on which the article has appeared. 政府机构和其他组织企业等等的出书物包罗文件、陈诉,统计信息,宣传册等,这些都可以直接用标题来标注出书物信息。有些政府公牍或者其他组织的类似文件有庞大的编号系统,这个也可以标注出来。The publications of government organs, organizations and enterprises include documents, reports, statistics and brochures. The title of all these can be used to give reference information. Some government documents and similar documents of other organizations have their own complicated serial number system. This information can also be added into reference entry. 学位论文除了标题,还需要标出论文的类型,也就是学位类型,好比PhD diss.。

In addition to its title, the type of a dissertation needs to be specified in reference entry. It is in fact the type of the degree, such as PhD diss. 如果引用并复制了图片、绘画、诗歌或者其他类型的作品,可以像引用文字一样,标注所引用泉源的作者、出书日期、标题或说明。If a writer quotes and replicates a picture, a painting, a poem or other types of work, he or she may give reference information on the creator of the quoted work, its date of publication, title and other descriptive details. 未揭晓的文章、研究、手稿,标明作者、标题,可以标注“unpublished”。未公然揭晓的集会论文可以说明投稿或宣读论文的集会,注明“presented at”,并加入其它须要信息。

An unpublished article, study or manuscript can be referenced with the information on its author and title with the information “unpublished” added. A paper not yet published but contributed to or read at a conference can be referenced with the information “presented at (the name of conference)” and other necessary details. 种种类型的小我私家通信联系,需要加入“pers. comm.”。“Pers. comm.” needs to be added in reference entry for various types of personal communications. 文章没有明确作者,就不必标出,直接标注标题。

如果没有详细出书日期,需要在年份位置注明(n.d.)。If an article does not have a specific author, this part can be omitted and its title be placed in the beginning of the reference entry. If there is no specific date of publication, “n.d.” needs to be given at the place where the year of publication is written. 用作参考文献的电子资料有许多类型。


在文献信息部门,除了加入了文件花样之外,标注信息的其余部门其实与传统出书物的出书信息对应。There are many kinds of electronic materials that can be used as reference. E-books, websites and database items belong to one major category. All these are official electronic format in publication. The information in reference entry focuses on the format, source and location of referenced electronic data. In the part of reference information, the format of electronic file is added. Except for this, the rest of the information basically corresponds with the literature information of traditional publications.音视频文件有两类:一类是通过电台电视台或者在线公布的,另一类是制作到CD等介质上作为产物刊行出售的。


There are two kinds of audio and video files: One type is those published online or on air through radio and television stations; the other type is produced and sold on mediums such as CD. The files are made in traditional audio and video formats and digital formats. Video games might be added to these kinds of reference as it is also the product of publishing industry. Referencing of these materials follows the way of referencing traditional publications. But the key is to give the information of file format or form of medium. 网络上完整的文章除了揭晓到媒体网站上,还可以揭晓在小我私家博客上,这样的文章类似于传统媒体的专栏文章。标注文章信息时,要提供发帖标题,网站名称,花样,发帖时间。Well-written articles can be published in media websites or other kinds of websites. And they can also be written on personal blogs on the Internet. Blogs are similar to column articles in traditional media. When referencing blogs, the information needs to be given includes blog title, website name, format and date of blogging. 种种网络百科也可以作为文献泉源,其中文献信息部门需要标注出文章标题;网络百科标题,花样,最后版今日期。

Various wikipedia and other internet encyclopedia can also be used as source of reference. The part about referenced material in reference entry includes article title, name of internet encyclopedia, format and date of the latest version. 电子邮件和其他在线通信需要标明“pers. comm.”,泉源包罗电子邮件列表、USENET群组、论坛板块、通信软件等等。作者信息部门最好附上电子通信的其他细节,包罗电子邮件地址。文献信息部门包罗发帖的日期和标题、文件花样,发帖标题取自消息内容的“主题”行。“Pers. comm.” needs to be added when emails and other online communications are used as reference materials. The source of such materials include email list, USENET groups, forum board and communication software. The part on author in reference entry should better have other details about electronic communication, such as email address. The part on referenced materials includes date of post, title and file format. The title of post can be taken from the “Theme” line of the message. 微博类网站发帖都比力简短,用作文献时可以直接以全文作为标题,或者截取其中最前面15词作为标题。


文件花样说明即是网站名称加上发帖,好比“Facebook post”,然后加上发帖日期。On microblog websites, posts tend to be brief. The full text can be used as title when they are used as reference materials. Or the first fifteen words can be taken as title. The description of file format includes website name and the word “post”, such as “Facebook post”. And then the date of posting is given. 图片、图表、表格等等其他类型的文献,文献信息也与传统出书物类似,包罗标题或说明,重点是提供电子花样的文件花样和其他细节,好比,数字照片需要注明“digital photograph”。The information on other reference materials such as picture, diagram and tables is similar to traditional publications. It includes title or description. And the key is to give file format of its electronic version and other details. For example, “digital photograph” needs to be added for digital photographs used in writing. 页码和章节号是文献信息的最后一个细节。

需要注意的是单页用p加页码号,多页用pp加页码规模。Page or chapter number is the last detail for the part on referenced materials in reference entry. It needs to be noted that for a single page, “p” and page number is used and, for several or many pages, “pp” and the range of the pages referenced is used. 文献标注信息的最后一部门是出书公布信息。传统出书物中,这一部门信息主要是出书商的名称和出书所在。

电子文献中,除了要注明,出品、公布或所有方的名称,还要专门注明会见地址,即数据库名称加网址(用“Available through”加名称、网址),网址(用“Available at”加网址),DOI编号(直接用DOI所在网址加DOI编号)。另外,还要注明会见日期,即“Accessed (date)”,日期花样为日(序数),月份(英文词),年份(四位数字)。

The last part of referencing is the information on publishing. For traditional publications, this part includes name of publisher and place of publishing. For electronic reference materials, the location of access on the internet needs to be specified in addition of the name of publisher, producer or owner. Namely, database name and website is described like “Available through (name of database) (website address)”. Website is described like “Available at (website address)”. DOI number is given directly as “(website address of the site where DOI is located)/DOI number”. In addition, the date of access needs to be given as “Accessed (date)”. The format of the date is like “(day in cardinal number) (month in English word) (year in four digits)”.。